Second-chance learning is an instructional strategy for increasing student mastery of course content. It includes re-teaching, additional practice, and an opportunity to demonstrate new learning on another assessment. The following information provides a rationale for second-chance learning, as well as guidelines and examples for effective implementation.
Board Policy IKAB and Corresponding Regulation:
Interim and report card grades shall be as pure a measure as possible of student achievement in mastering content standards and course outcomes.
Teachers are encouraged to provide second-chance learning opportunities (including re-teaching, extra practice, and the opportunity to demonstrate learning on another assessment) for all students, regardless of their achievement level.
Foundational Beliefs about Second-Chance Learning:
· Learning the essential content is the best preparation for the world beyond.
· Second-chance learning helps to develop proficiency.
· To be effective, second-chance learning cannot consist solely of a retest. Academic gains result from a combination of remediation and retesting.
· Grades are not rewards, punishments, motivators, or compensation. They are a communication of learning that has been demonstrated.
· The goal is that all students learn the content, not just the ones who can learn on the uniform time line. Curriculum goals do not require that every individual reach the same level of proficiency on the same day, only that every student achieves the goal.
· Second-chance learning is inherent to the formative assessment process. In the formative process, learning is co-owned by teachers and students and therefore should lead to re-teaching and practice opportunities:
o Formative Assessments → Second-chance teaching and practice.
· Summative assignments are the culmination of learning and should be open to necessary remediation and demonstration of new learning:
o Summative Assessments → Second-chance learning and assessment.
· All students have second-chance learning opportunities, regardless of their grade on the original assessment. Educators shall support students who are seeking excellence.
· The demands of second-chance learning must be shared by the teacher and the student. Teachers provide the opportunity, and students take on the responsibility of completing some correctives and demonstrating their learning.
Resources for Second-Chance Learning:
CCPS Position Paper:Student Achievement, Grading, Assessment, and Second-Chance Learning
CCPS PowerPoint: Second-Chance Learning
Rick Wormeli Video Clips: Re-dos and Re-takes Parts 1 & 2
Wormeli, R. (2011). Redos and Retakes Done Right
Dueck, M. (2014). The Problem with Penalties
Guskey, T. (2003). How Classroom Assessments Improve Learning
Guskey, T. (2010). Lessons of Mastery Learning
Dueck, M. (2014). Grading Smarter not Harder: Assessment Strategies that Motivate Kids and Help Them Learn. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
O’Connor, K. (2009). How to Grade for Learning, K-12. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
O’Connor, K. (2007). A Repair Kit for Grading: 15 Fixes for Broken Grades. Portland, OR: Educational Testing Service.
Marzano, R. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Guidelines for Second-Chance Learning:
1. Either the teacher or the student can request second-chance learning.
2. Teachers, students, and parents need to understand the differences between formative and summative assessments.
Assignments designed to provide practice and to guide next-step instruction.
Assignments designed to evaluate student learning.
For practice and feedback during the instructional unit.
For determining the breadth, depth, and quality of student learning at the end of the instructional unit.
A piece of the whole learning.
The whole learning.
Given along the way.
Given at the end.
Weighted much less than summative assignments because learning is still forming.
Weighted much more than formative assignments because instruction has ended.
Following a formative assignment, appropriate to give second-chance teaching and practice.
Following a summative assignment, appropriate to give second-chance learning and assessment.
Analogy: Learning how to drive
Student enrolls in a driver’s education course (Instruction).
Student studies the laws of the road.
Student takes the law test to obtain learner’s permit (Summative).
Pass? Student progresses to practice road driving.
Fail? Student reviews the laws in the driver’s manual and re-tests at a later date.
Repeat until pass (Second-Chance Learning).
Student practices with driving instructor and parents on the road (Instruction).
Instructor and parents give feedback on driving (Formative).
Student logs in 60 practice hours.
Parents determine student is ready to take the driver’s test.
Student takes the driver’s test (Summative).
Pass? Student gets driver’s license.
Fail? Student practices more on road and re-tests at a later date.
Repeat until pass (Second-Chance Learning).
3. Assessments should be designed using the backwards design method:
Course objectives → Summative assessments→ Formative assessments→ Lesson plans. This alignment will facilitate the second-chance learning process.
4. Second-chance learning is permitted at teacher discretion. Teachers will specifically define their approach to second-chance learning in their syllabus.
5. A reasonable time frame for completion and how completed will be agreed upon between the teacher and student.
6. Under the direction of the teacher, students will develop a second-chance learning plan and provide evidence that they have completed the plan before they are allowed a re-assessment opportunity.
7. Students may demonstrate their new learning through a variety of avenues, which may include alternate versions or formats of the assessment or a redo of just the portions on which they performed poorly.
8. Replace the grade with the highest mark; don’t average the two.
9. FLEX, SET, and academic development periods present a good opportunity for students to work with teachers on developing the second chance learning plan, or to demonstrate their new learning.
Examples of Second-Chance Learning: